The abundance of different land surface forms, the great diversity of soil types and unequal irrigation conditions led to the great diversity of vegetation in Pavilniai Regional Park and its accesses. Over 750 species of Lithuanian flora have been recorded in this relatively small area. Although the city is unrecognizably changing the natural environment, natural plant communities and habitats of rare species have survived to this day on the steep slopes and marshes.
In Markučiai and Ribiškės hills, more natural vegetation has survived only in wet places. Among the more interesting floristic finds are Lathyrus ochraceus, listed in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, and the white Wood-rush (Luzula luzuloides), also a rather rare plant.
There is a great diversity of plant communities and species in Ribiškės.
Remains of old mature oak groves should be mentioned, along with them grow common lindens and common maple. In the uninhabited hills, on dry slopes of common dry meadows you will find: Hard Fescue (Festuca trachyphylla), Teesdale Violet (Viola rupestris), broad-leaved thyme (Thymus pulegioides), etc.
Perennial star gentian (Gentiana cruciata) is found in these communities.
Land meadows are very colorful, because they are rich in legumes (clover, vetch, pea), other plants that bloom with beautiful flowers (cauldrons, sagebrushes, veronics, buttercups). The same colorful communities of lowland meadows located on the springs of the source streams: Cabbage thistle (Cirsium oleraceum), marsh-marigold (Caltha palustris), meadow geranium (Geranium pratense), bistort (Bistorta officinalis), etc.
The diversity of forest communities is most abundant in the Mountain Reserve. Here, its diversity depends on the complex terrain, different soil types and irrigation conditions. Where the slopes face south, along with spruce begin to grow, common oak, common maple, common linden and aspen.
In the spring terrace of the Vilnius Valley below the Tuputiškės well, you will find complexes of swampy and bushy meadows.
On the shores of the springs, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), tufted sedge (Carex elata), wood clubrush (Scirpus sylvaticus), large bitter-cress (Cardamine amara) are common.
In some places, the meandering passes into bushy peat meadows or the spectacular broad-leaved grasslands rising on the slope.
Pūčkoriai loops will get a lot of the Red Book Perennial Honesty (Lunaria rediviva) population located on a steep slope overgrown with deciduous trees.
In the Tuputiškės Botanical Reserve, there is a great diversity of forest communities. In the fertile soils at the foot of the spring slopes there are white alder groves with the admixture of elm, and above the slopes they are replaced by ash trees.
Old oaks grow on the slopes, and the lush grassy cover yellow anemone (Anemone ranunculoides) and spring pea (Lathyrus vernus).
As the oak grove grows thinner, fragments of colorful forest meadows form on the slopes of the southern or southwestern exposition, where more than 40 species grow.
Similar communities grow on the steep hills and valley slopes on the right bank of Vilnius, Belmont Botanical-Zoological Reserve. At Leoniškės, the Pūčkoriai slopes are covered with broadleaf trees communities. Almost all the most common species of forest shrubs are recorded in their abundant tract: common hazel (Corylus avellana), fly honeysuckle (Lonicera xylosteum), spindle either European or warted (Euonymus europaeus; verrucosus), bird cherry (Prunus padus), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), etc. Among the grasses the most impressive is the martagon lily (Lilium martagon).
The forests in the Barsukyne area are dark, cold and poor. Spruce groves growing in humid valley and their steep northern or eastern slopes are not floristically diverse. Wood sorrel (Oxalis acetosella), common hepatica (Hepatica nobilis) and yellow archangel (Lamium galeobdolon) predominate.
Natural or semi-natural communities in Pavilniai Regional Park, mostly forests, occupy more than 75%. They are rich in: small mammals, birds, reptiles, insects and other animals. Most of the natural complexes in the park area are heavily affected by human activities, resulting in anthropogenic biotypes. There are new areas in the human sphere that are very valuable from a scientific and environmental point of view. There are quite few valuable fish species in the Vilnia River. Water bodies are inhabited by both ordinary as well as very rare and valuable rivers fish: zarte, salmon.
Vilnius is included in the list of rivers of international significance where salmon populations are to be restored. In order to create conditions for fish (salmon and sea trout) to migrate and enter the upper reaches of Vilnia river, a fish stairway was installed in the old Pūčkoriai dam in 2000.
The bunkers of Antakalnis - the kingdom of bats. You can find here up to 7 species of winter bats: barbastelle bat (Barbastella barbastellus
), daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii
), pond bat (Myotis dasycneme
), brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus
), serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus
) and northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii
). Mostly here you can find the barbastelle bat, very rare in the countries of the European Union, and therefore strictly protected by international instruments.